The Gupta Empire was named after the Gupta dynasty which ruled approximately between 320- 550 CE. The Gupta dynasty period is regarded as the Golden Age of India. This period is also known as the Classical Age of Hinduism.
Hinduism was revived during the Gupta Empire period and after its revival, it reached its zenith. The main religion followed by the Gupta people was Hindu. Hinduism played a significant role during the Gupta period.
Hinduism governed the social hierarchy of the Gupta Empire society. The society was classified into four main castes and several sub- castes. Though Hinduism was the main religion, Buddhism also evolved during this time.
The literature during the Gupta dynasty rule was at its pinnacle. The primary themes of literature during this period were poetry and romantic comedies. This meant that the literature work of the Gupta period related to human behavior more than the religious ideas.
During the Gupta Empire rule, Sanskrit literature was very well received. The Sanskrit literature was sponsored by many Gupta empire rulers. During his reign, Chandragupta II had Navaratna, or set of nine poets in his court. The supreme poet among these nine was Kalidasa.
The Prakrit literature was also very popular during the Gupta rule. It was considered to be close to the Jain texts. One of the best illustrations of Prakrit literature was the Paumacariyam. It was in the Gupta empire period that the Vedic Puranas achieved their final form.
The puranas were the compilation of mythological stories, philosophies and description of rituals in books. The Markandeya purana was popular during the Gupta era.
During the Gupta Empire period gods and goddesses like Vishnu, Shiva, Lakshmi, Parvati and Durga were worshipped. These deities formed an essential part of the religious beliefs of the Gupta Empire people.